Journal of Food Protection: Volume 68, Number 8
Jui-Lien Hsu,a Hans M. Opitz,b Robert C. Bayer,b Linda J. Kling,b William A. Halteman,c Roy E. Martin,d and Bohdan M. Slabyj, a
aDepartment of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469
bSchool of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469
cDepartment of Mathematics, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469
dNational Fisheries Institute, Arlington, Virginia 22209, USA
The behavior of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes (147 and ATCC 19111) was evaluated at different stages of salmon processing. At lower temperatures of 2, 7, and 11″C, L. monocytogenes survived on dry wood surfaces for at least 3 days without added nutrients but was unrecoverable after 2 days at 22″C. Moisture or minimal nutrients on the wood surface increased viability of L. monocytogenes at all incubation temperatures. When large amounts of nutrients were provided, the recoveries of L. monocytogenes at low temperatures (11″C) were essentially unchanged over the 3-day holding period, and rapid growth was observed at room temperature. In the presence of natural microflora, L. monocytogenes died off rapidly in seawater within 36 h at room temperature. When held at 11″C, L. monocytogenes lost viability throughout storage but was still detectable after more than 6 days of incubation. In the absence of natural microflora, both strains of L. monocytogenes were static during the holding period at all temperatures. At 2, 7, and 11″C, L. monocytogenes in nonsterile salmon blood– water remained viable even after 6 days of incubation, whereas in sterile blood–water, growth of L. monocytogenes was observed at 7 and 11″C. In the aBSEnce of natural microflora, L. monocytogenes grew better than it did in the presence of natural microflora. L. monocytogenes 147 was more competitive with background organisms than was L. monocytogenes ATCC 19111. No L. monocytogenes could be detected in the digestive tract of salmon 3 days after its introduction. The survival pattern of L. monocytogenes in fish digestive tracts was similar, regardless of whether the fish were feeding or not. A noticeable decline in the pathogen was oBSErved as early as 3 h after introduction.